# ChatGPT can't multiply, but can AI do math?

TLDRThe script discusses the limitations of AI in performing mathematical operations, such as multiplication, where ChatGPT may fail due to its predictive nature based on patterns rather than understanding. It highlights the use of AI in mathematical research, particularly SAT solvers for complex problems like the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem. The script also mentions the application of neural networks by Adam Wagner to find counterexamples in combinatorics, suggesting AI as a valuable tool for mathematicians, though unlikely to replace them.

### Takeaways

- 🤖 ChatGPT struggles with multiplication due to its predictive nature based on statistical observations rather than understanding the mathematical process.
- 🧠 AI like ChatGPT can make accurate predictions about the start and end digits of a multiplication but fails with the middle digits due to the complexity involved.
- 🔍 AI's current capabilities in math are far from replacing mathematicians, but they are being used as tools to assist in mathematical research.
- 🔢 SAT solvers are a type of AI used by mathematicians to solve Boolean satisfiability problems efficiently, which can be applied to certain mathematical questions.
- 🌐 The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem was resolved using a SAT solver, demonstrating the practical application of AI in complex mathematical proofs.
- 📚 Converting mathematical problems into Boolean sentences for SAT solvers requires clever work and is not applicable to all mathematical problems.
- 💡 Neural networks and techniques like the cross entropy method are being explored in pure math research to find counterexamples to conjectures.
- 📉 The cross entropy method trains a neural network to generate potential counterexamples to a mathematical conjecture, refining the process over time.
- 🚀 This method can save mathematicians time by automating the search for counterexamples, which could be impractical to find manually.
- 🔑 AI is seen as an additional tool for mathematicians rather than a replacement, offering new ways to approach and solve problems.
- 🔮 The future of AI in mathematics is promising, with the potential to uncover solutions and examples that might be beyond human capacity to find.

### Q & A

### Why does ChatGPT sometimes fail at multiplication despite being a computer program?

-ChatGPT fails at multiplication because it makes predictions based on patterns it has seen in text, rather than understanding the mathematical operations. It can predict the start and end digits of a product based on statistical observations but struggles with the middle digits, which depend on all input digits and require more complex understanding.

### What is the role of AI in mathematical research, according to the transcript?

-AI, particularly tools like SAT solvers and neural networks, is used by mathematicians to assist in research. SAT solvers can handle specific types of mathematical problems by converting them into Boolean sentences, while neural networks can be used to find counterexamples to mathematical conjectures using techniques like the cross entropy method.

### What is a SAT solver, and how is it used in mathematical research?

-A SAT solver is a software used to solve the Boolean satisfiability problem, determining if it's possible to substitute true or false for variables in a sentence to make it true. It can solve problems with thousands of variables efficiently using heuristics and optimizations, and has been used to resolve complex mathematical problems like the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem.

### What is the Boolean Pythagorean triples problem, and how was it solved using a SAT solver?

-The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem asks if you can color positive integers red and blue such that no Pythagorean triple is all the same color. The problem was solved using a SAT solver, which generated a 68-gigabyte proof after two days of computation, showing that it is impossible.

### How do SAT solvers optimize the process of solving Boolean sentences?

-SAT solvers use heuristics and optimizations to efficiently solve Boolean sentences. They avoid checking every possibility, which would take an exponential amount of time, by applying reduction rules and intelligently selecting variable assignments to quickly reach a solution.

### What is the cross entropy method, and how was it used by Adam Wagner in his research?

-The cross entropy method is a technique used to find counterexamples to mathematical conjectures. Adam Wagner used this method with neural networks to generate counterexamples for problems in combinatorics. The process involves training a neural net to predict how to build graphs that are likely counterexamples and then retraining based on the closest disproofs.

### How does the cross entropy method save mathematicians' time in disproving false conjectures?

-The cross entropy method saves time by intelligently generating graphs or examples that are likely to be counterexamples to a conjecture, rather than testing every possible case. It retrains the neural network based on the closest disproofs, gradually finding more effective counterexamples until a valid one is discovered.

### What is the current limitation of AI in pure mathematical research, as mentioned in the transcript?

-The current limitation of AI in pure mathematical research is that it cannot replace the creative and intuitive thinking of mathematicians. AI tools can assist in specific tasks, but they require human insight to convert problems into a format they can solve, and many mathematical problems cannot be easily converted into a form suitable for AI.

### Why are AI techniques like neural networks not more widely used in pure math research?

-AI techniques like neural networks are not more widely used in pure math research because many mathematical problems cannot be easily converted into a form that these techniques can handle. Additionally, the process of finding and training neural networks to solve specific mathematical problems requires significant expertise and computational resources.

### What is the potential future role of AI in mathematics according to the transcript?

-The transcript suggests that while AI is unlikely to replace mathematicians, it has the potential to become another tool in their toolkit. AI could be used to find examples and counterexamples that humans might not have the time to discover, thus aiding in the research process.

### How does the transcript describe the current capabilities of large language models like ChatGPT in understanding mathematical concepts?

-The transcript describes large language models like ChatGPT as being far from understanding mathematical concepts deeply. They can make statistical predictions based on patterns in text but lack the ability to truly understand and accurately perform complex mathematical operations like multiplication.

### Outlines

### 🤖 AI's Limitations in Mathematical Computation

The paragraph discusses the limitations of AI, specifically ChatGPT, in performing mathematical operations like multiplication. It explains that while AI can make predictions based on patterns it has learned from text, it lacks true understanding, leading to errors in complex calculations. The middle digits of a product are particularly challenging for AI because they depend on all input digits, which cannot be accurately predicted using simple statistical observations. The paragraph also touches on the use of AI in mathematical research, such as SAT solvers, which are effective for solving Boolean satisfiability problems but require human ingenuity to convert complex problems into a format suitable for these solvers.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### 💡Multiplication

### 💡AI (Artificial Intelligence)

### 💡SAT Solver

### 💡Boolean Satisfiability Problem

### 💡Heuristics

### 💡Neural Networks

### 💡Cross Entropy Method

### 💡Combinatorics

### 💡Conjectures

### 💡Counterexamples

### Highlights

ChatGPT's inability to accurately multiply numbers is due to its predictive text-based approach rather than true mathematical understanding.

Initial digits in ChatGPT's multiplication results may be correct, but inaccuracies often occur in the middle digits.

Large language models like ChatGPT rely on statistical observations rather than deep understanding of mathematical operations.

AI is currently used by mathematicians for research, despite not replacing the need for human expertise.

SAT solvers are a type of AI used in mathematical research to solve Boolean satisfiability problems efficiently.

SAT solvers can handle sentences with thousands of variables using heuristics and optimizations.

The Boolean Pythagorean triples problem was resolved using a SAT solver, resulting in a 68-gigabyte proof.

Converting mathematical problems into Boolean sentences is a skillful task that requires human input.

Neural networks have been used in pure math research to find counterexamples to combinatorics problems.

The cross entropy method trains neural networks to generate potential counterexamples to mathematical conjectures.

The process of retraining neural networks with closer counterexamples gradually improves the chances of disproving a conjecture.

AI techniques like neural networks could save mathematicians time by disproving false conjectures more efficiently.

The potential of AI in pure math research is vast, with the possibility of finding examples that humans might overlook.

AI is unlikely to replace mathematicians but can be an invaluable tool in their research process.

The integration of AI in mathematical research opens up new possibilities for problem-solving and discovery.

AI's role in mathematics is to assist and augment human capabilities, not to replace them.