Prompt Engineering Tutorial – Master ChatGPT and LLM Responses
5 Sept 202341:36

TLDRThis tutorial, led by Anu Kubo, dives into the world of prompt engineering, a field that has gained significant importance with the rise of artificial intelligence. It explains how prompt engineering involves crafting and optimizing prompts to enhance the interaction between humans and AI. The course covers the basics of AI, the role of machine learning, and the evolution of language models. It also discusses the importance of linguistics in creating effective prompts and provides practical examples of how to improve prompts for better AI responses. The tutorial touches on advanced topics like zero-shot and few-shot prompting, AI hallucinations, and the concept of text embeddings. By the end, viewers are equipped with the knowledge to harness the power of large language models like GPT-4 more effectively.


  • πŸš€ **Prompt Engineering Importance**: It's a career born from the rise of AI, focusing on refining prompts to perfect human-AI interaction and requiring continuous monitoring and updating.
  • πŸ€– **AI Definition**: Artificial intelligence simulates human intelligence processes by machines, often relying on machine learning which uses training data to predict outcomes.
  • πŸ“š **Course Overview**: The course covers prompt engineering, AI basics, large language models (LLMs), text-to-image models, and various other AI applications.
  • πŸ’‘ **Prompt Engineering Strategy**: Crafting effective prompts involves understanding language nuances, using standard grammar, and continuous improvement.
  • 🧠 **Linguistics Role**: Linguistics is central to prompt engineering, as it involves the study of language structure, meaning, and usage in context.
  • πŸ§™β€β™‚οΈ **Language Models**: These models learn from vast text collections, enabling them to understand, create, and mimic human-like text.
  • ⏳ **History of Language Models**: Starting with ELIZA in the 60s, through to modern models like GPT-4, language models have evolved significantly.
  • πŸ” **Prompt Mindset**: Effective prompt engineering requires a mindset similar to conducting efficient Google searches, focusing on clear and precise queries.
  • πŸ“ˆ **Zero-Shot and Few-Shot Prompting**: Zero-shot prompting uses a pre-trained model's understanding without further examples, while few-shot prompting provides a few examples to guide the model.
  • 🎨 **AI Hallucinations**: AI can produce unusual outputs when misinterpreting data, which can be both entertaining and informative.
  • πŸ“Š **Text Embeddings**: Representing text in a format processable by algorithms involves converting text into numerical vectors that capture semantic information.

Q & A

  • What is the main focus of the course on prompt engineering?

    -The course focuses on teaching the latest techniques to maximize productivity with large language models (LLMs) by mastering prompt engineering strategies.

  • What is the role of a prompt engineer?

    -A prompt engineer writes, refines, and optimizes prompts in a structured way to perfect the interaction between humans and AI. They also continuously monitor prompts for effectiveness, maintain an up-to-date prompt library, and report on findings.

  • Why is prompt engineering considered a valuable skill?

    -Prompt engineering is valuable because it helps control and optimize the outputs of AI, which can be challenging even for its architects. It's particularly useful for improving the learning experience and generating more accurate and interactive responses.

  • What does artificial intelligence (AI) refer to in the context of tools like chat GPT?

    -In the context of tools like chat GPT, AI refers to machine learning, which uses large amounts of training data to analyze correlations and patterns to predict outcomes.

  • How does the concept of machine learning work?

    -Machine learning works by using large amounts of training data to identify patterns and correlations. These patterns are then used to make predictions based on the provided data.

  • What is the significance of linguistics in prompt engineering?

    -Linguistics is crucial in prompt engineering because understanding the nuances of language and its use in different contexts is key to crafting effective prompts that yield accurate results from AI systems.

  • What is a language model and how does it function?

    -A language model is a computer program that learns from a vast collection of written text, allowing it to understand and generate human-like text. It analyzes input, predicts or continues sentences based on its understanding of language, and can engage in conversations like a digital friend.

  • What are the key components of the prompt engineering mindset?

    -The prompt engineering mindset involves writing clear instructions with details, adopting a persona, specifying the format, using iterative prompting, avoiding leading the answer, and limiting the scope for long topics.

  • How does zero-shot prompting differ from few-shot prompting?

    -Zero-shot prompting refers to querying a model without any explicit training examples for the task, while few-shot prompting provides the model with a few examples to enhance its understanding and performance on the task.

  • What is an AI hallucination?

    -AI hallucination refers to the unusual outputs that AI models can produce when they misinterpret data, creating responses that are inaccurate or fantastical based on the patterns they have learned.

  • What is text embedding and why is it used in prompt engineering?

    -Text embedding is a technique to represent textual information in a format that can be easily processed by algorithms, particularly deep learning models. It converts text prompts into high-dimensional vectors that capture semantic information, allowing for better similarity comparisons and more accurate AI responses.



πŸš€ Introduction to Prompt Engineering and AI

Anu Kubo introduces the course on prompt engineering, explaining its importance in maximizing productivity with large language models (LLMs). She discusses the rise of prompt engineering due to AI advancements and emphasizes that no coding background is required. The course will cover the basics of AI, an introduction to LLMs, text-to-image models, and various other AI applications. Prompt engineering is presented as both a career and a process involving writing, refining, and optimizing prompts to improve human-AI interaction. The role of a prompt engineer includes monitoring, updating prompts, and being a thought leader in the field. The concept of machine learning is also introduced, explaining how AI uses training data to predict outcomes.


πŸ€– Enhancing AI Interactions with Prompts

The paragraph demonstrates how to enhance interactions with AI through carefully crafted prompts. It uses the example of an English learner getting better responses by adjusting the prompt. The importance of linguistics in prompt engineering is highlighted, as understanding language nuances is key to creating effective prompts. Language models are described as programs that learn from written text to generate human-like responses. The text also touches on the various applications of language models, from virtual assistants to creative writing aids.


πŸ“š History of Language Models and Prompt Mindset

This section delves into the history of language models, starting with Eliza in the 1960s and progressing through to modern models like GPT. It discusses Eliza's pattern-matching capabilities and its impact on the field of natural language processing. The paragraph also introduces the concept of prompt engineering mindset, comparing crafting prompts to designing effective Google searches. It emphasizes the need to be specific and iterative when formulating prompts to get the desired results from AI.


πŸ’‘ Using Chat GPT and Understanding Tokens

The paragraph provides a brief tutorial on using Chat GPT by OpenAI, guiding users through the process of signing up, logging in, and interacting with the platform. It explains how to create and delete chats and how to use the API for more advanced interactions. The concept of tokens in GPT-4 is introduced, explaining that texts are processed in chunks called tokens and that users are charged per token. A tokenizer tool is mentioned for users to check their token usage.


πŸ“ Best Practices in Prompt Engineering

The paragraph outlines best practices for writing effective prompts. It advises on providing clear instructions, adopting a persona, using iterative prompting, avoiding leading questions, and limiting the scope for broad topics. Examples are given to illustrate how more specific prompts can yield better and more focused responses from AI. The importance of being explicit about the desired output, such as specifying programming languages or expected data formats, is emphasized.


🎯 Advanced Prompting Techniques

This section discusses advanced prompting techniques such as zero-shot and few-shot prompting. Zero-shot prompting is when a pre-trained model uses its understanding of words and concepts without further training examples. Few-shot prompting, on the other hand, provides a few examples to enhance the model's performance on a specific task. The paragraph also touches on AI hallucinations, which occur when AI misinterprets data and produces unusual outputs. It concludes with a brief mention of vectors and text embeddings, which are used to represent textual information in a format that can be processed by algorithms.


🌟 Conclusion and Final Thoughts

The final paragraph recaps the course on prompt engineering, summarizing the topics covered, including an introduction to AI, linguistics, language models, prompt engineering mindset, using GPT-4, best practices, zero-shot and few-shot prompting, AI hallucinations, and text embeddings. It encourages learners to experiment with the create embedding API from OpenAI to gain a deeper understanding of text embeddings and their applications. The course concludes with a thank you note and an invitation to join the FreeCocam channel for more learning.



πŸ’‘Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is the strategic creation and refinement of prompts to elicit the most effective responses from AI models like chat GPT. It is a career that has emerged with the rise of AI and involves optimizing interactions between humans and AI. In the video, Anu Kubo explains that prompt engineering is crucial for maximizing productivity with large language models and involves continuous monitoring and updating of prompts to align with AI's progression.

πŸ’‘Large Language Models (LLMs)

Large Language Models, or LLMs, are advanced AI systems that can process and generate human-like text based on vast amounts of training data. They are a core component of the AI technologies discussed in the video. Anu Kubo mentions LLMs such as chat GPT as examples of models that can benefit from prompt engineering to improve their responses and interactions with users.

πŸ’‘Zero-Shot Prompting

Zero-shot prompting is a technique where an AI model is asked to perform a task without being provided any specific examples of that task during the prompt. It leverages the model's pre-existing knowledge and understanding of concepts. In the video, Anu Kubo demonstrates zero-shot prompting by asking the AI when Christmas is in America, relying on the model's general knowledge.

πŸ’‘Few-Shot Prompting

Few-shot prompting enhances an AI model's performance on a task by providing it with a few examples during the prompt. This method allows the model to 'learn' from the examples and improve its response without retraining. Anu Kubo illustrates few-shot prompting by first asking the AI about her favorite foods without examples and then providing a few examples, which enables the AI to suggest suitable restaurants.

πŸ’‘AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations refer to the incorrect or imaginative outputs AI models may produce when they misinterpret input data. This can occur when AI fills in gaps in understanding with incorrect assumptions. Anu Kubo discusses AI hallucinations in the context of unusual outputs, using Google's Deep Dream as an example where the AI enhances patterns in images to create surreal results.

πŸ’‘Text Embeddings

Text embeddings are a method in natural language processing that represents text in a numerical format that can be understood by machine learning models. This technique captures the semantic meaning of words or sentences. In the video, Anu Kubo explains that text embeddings convert text prompts into high-dimensional vectors, which allows for tasks like finding semantically similar words to a given word.


Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure, including aspects such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. It plays a key role in prompt engineering by providing an understanding of language nuances and context. Anu Kubo emphasizes the importance of linguistics in crafting effective prompts that can yield accurate AI responses.

πŸ’‘Chain of Thought

Chain of thought is a prompting technique where the AI is guided through a step-by-step logical process to reach a conclusion or answer. This helps the AI to provide more detailed and reasoned responses. Although not explicitly detailed in the provided transcript, the concept is implied in the discussion of prompting strategies that guide AI through a process.

πŸ’‘Machine Learning

Machine learning is a subset of AI that involves the use of data and algorithms to enable machines to learn from and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed. It is the basis for how AI models like chat GPT function. Anu Kubo describes machine learning as using training data to find patterns and predict outcomes, which is fundamental to the operation of LLMs.

πŸ’‘Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing is a field of AI that focuses on the interaction between computers and human languages. It enables machines to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a way that is both meaningful and useful. In the context of the video, NLP is crucial for developing language models that can effectively engage with users through prompt engineering.


Tokenization in the context of AI and text processing refers to the division of text into individual words or tokens that can be analyzed and understood by a language model. It is a critical step in preparing text for machine learning models. Anu Kubo discusses tokens in relation to the cost of using AI models like chat GPT, where the charge is determined by the number of tokens processed.


Prompt engineering is a career that involves optimizing prompts to perfect human-AI interaction.

Prompt engineers are required to continuously monitor and update prompts as AI progresses.

Artificial intelligence simulates human intelligence processes without being sentient.

Machine learning uses training data to analyze patterns and predict outcomes.

Prompt engineering is useful for controlling AI outputs and enhancing learning experiences.

Correct prompts can create interactive and engaging AI experiences tailored to user interests.

Linguistics is key to prompt engineering, understanding language nuances is crucial for effective prompts.

Language models are programs that learn from written text and generate human-like responses.

The history of language models began with Eliza, an early natural language processing program from the 1960s.

GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) models have evolved from GPT-1 in 2018 to GPT-4, improving language understanding and generation.

Prompt engineering mindset involves writing clear, detailed instructions and avoiding leading questions.

Zero-shot prompting allows querying models without explicit training examples for the task.

Few-shot prompting enhances the model with a few examples, improving task performance without retraining.

AI hallucinations refer to unusual outputs when AI misinterprets data, offering insight into AI's thought processes.

Text embeddings represent textual information as high dimensional vectors capturing semantic information.

Text embeddings allow for the comparison of semantic similarities between different texts.

The create embedding API from OpenAI can be used to generate text embeddings for prompt engineering.

Best practices in prompt engineering include using clear instructions, adopting a persona, and specifying format for focused responses.